General course idea:
Since we are facing unprecedented sustainability challenges, several calls have been made to rethink or re-imagine capitalism. Contemporary world complexities include climate change, tax avoidance, pandemics, pollution, modern slavery, economic and social inequalities, sustainability challenges at large. This course's key aim is to constitute a "wakening call" for students on the need to address grand sustainability challenges in their future jobs as regulators, policy makers, analysts, managers etc. set of talks on rebalancing capitalism and democracy.

Required Readings:
All materials will be available on the E-learning course website..
Participants will be expected to keep abreast of contemporary developments in corporate social and environmental responsibilities, business
and human rights, sustainability challenges by reading the relevant press (e.g. The Economist, Forbes, Fortune, Business Week, Foreign
Affairs) and other newspapers or journals.
Course Description:
Core topics
Shareholder value maximization vs. stakeholder theory
Corporate wrongdoing and corporate social responsibility
New business models for a more responsible capitalism
Business and human rights
Special topics
Economic inequality and tax evasion
Finance and climate change/Responsible Investing
Migrants and modern slavery
Food waste
Responsible innovation and circular economy
EU Green Deal for a toxic free environment
The course provides the basic elements of Value, Capital, Growth and Accumulation within Classical and Post-Keynesian Economics.

The course will be held partially on a seminar basis. Students will be evaluated also on the basis of their presentation to seminars, but the issues dealt with on a seminar basis will not be compulsory even if the students who have not delivered a talk in a seminar have to choose a number of issues for the exam.

Students must be familiar with the standard tools of microeconomics, elementary algebra, and elementary mathematical analysis. Some knowledge of models of economic growth is recommended, but is not required.

Students will be evaluated also on the basis of their presentation to seminars, but the issues dealt with on a seminar basis will not be compulsory even if the students who have not delivered a talk in a seminar have to choose a number of issues for the exam. The compulsory part includes: pricing; income distribution (wages, profits and rent); theory of growth of a closed economy, of a small open economy, of the world economy both for Classical and Post-Keynesian Economics.

Ricardo Theory of Growth and Accumulation: The one-sector model; The two-sector model; The small open economy; The Wold Economy.
Theory of Production: Production with capital and labour without land; Capital theory and criticism of Neo-Classical theory of distribution.
Post-Keynesian Theory of Growth and Distribution: Origin; Dual and Neo-Pasinetti Theorems; Existence of a Two-class economy; Public Sector and International Trade.

Neri Salvadori, Ricardo’s theory of growth and accumulation. A modern view, London: Routledge, 2020.
Kurz, H.D. & Salvadori, N. (2001) Production Theory: An Introduction”, Indian Economic Journal, 2001. Reprinted in Kurz, H.D. & Salvadori, N. (2003). Classical Economics and Modern Theory: Studies in Long-period Analysis, London and New York: Routledge; pp. 238-255.
Kurz, D. H. and N. Salvadori, Theory of production, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995; Chapters 2, 3, and 14.
Panico C. & Salvadori, N. (a cura di) (1993), Post Keynesian Theory of Growth and Distribution, Aldershot (U.K.): Edward Elgar.
Commendatore P., S D'Acunto, C Panico (2003), Keynesian Theories Of Growth, in N. Salvadori (a cura di) The Theory of Economic Growth: A ‘Classical’ Perspective. Cheltenham (U.K.): Edward Elgar; pp. 103-160.

Assessment methods
The students who have delivered a seminar within the course will be evaluated on the basis of their performance plus a short exam on the part of the course which is taught though traditional lectures by the professor. The students who have NOT delivered a seminar within the course will be evaluated on the basis of a longer exam with the addition of two further issues to be chosen by the students from an issue topic pool.
This course is intended to serve as a broad introduction to the huge literature using agent-based computational approaches to the study of economic dynamics. It is organized in 2 parts. The first one is taught by Prof. Giorgio Fagiolo (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna) and the second one by Prof. Andrea Roventini (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna)

The first part (Fagiolo, 21 hours, 14 meetings) covers three themes. The first one (“Why?”) will discuss the roots of the critiques to the mainstream paradigm from a methodological, empirical and experimental perspective. We shall briefly review the building blocks of mainstream models (rationality, equilibrium, interactions, etc.) and shortly present some of the evidence coming from cognitive psychology and experimental economics, network theory and empirical studies, supporting the idea that bounded rationality, non-trivial interactions, non-equilibrium dynamics, heterogeneity, etc. are irreducible features of modern economies. In the second part (“What?”) we shall discuss what ACE is and what are its main tools of analysis. We will define an ABM and present many examples of classes of ABMS, from the simplest (cellular automata, evolutionary games) to the most complicated ones (micro-founded macro models).The third part (“How?”) aims at understanding how ABMs can be designed, implemented and statistically analyzed. We shall briefly present the basics of programming, by both discussing the pros and cons of using simulation platforms (Matlab, NetLogo, Swarm, LSD, etc.) vs. computer languages (Java, C++, etc.) and providing some simple “hands-on” applications to cellular automata. Finally, we will see how the outputs of ABMs simulation should be treated from a statistical point of view (e.g., Montecarlo techniques) and we will discuss two hot topics in ABM research: empirical validation and policy analysis.

The second part (Roventini) is dedicated to agent-based macroeconomics. First, the main differences between DSGE and ABMs will be discussed making the case for the adoption of agent-based models for macroeconomic policy analyses. Then, different macro ABMs accounting for endogenous growth and business cycles will be presented taking into account the main implications for innovation, monetary, and fiscal policies.
The aim of this course is to introduce students to the main topics of economic methodology, linking foundational issues with practical problems that economists face in the confrontation of models with data. The course focuses on the role of models in economics, issues about measurement and confirmation, forms of explanations, interpretations of probability, epistemological issues in statistical and causal inference, rational choice theory, and the methodology of experimental economics. The last part of the course will be devoted to students’ presentations of key papers in economic methodology.
Lecturers: MARTINELLI Arianna, TAMAGNI Federico

IMPORTANT: Lectures are scheduled IN PRESENCE @SCUOLA SANT'ANNA facilities. For an updated calendar of classes and Rooms location, please see:


Course Description:
The course introduces to recent developments in theory and empirics of firm dynamics and to its interplay with innovation patterns in shaping aggregate outcomes such as growth and productivity. The lecture have a strong applied focus, providing students with solid knowledge of the empirical evidence concerning key firm-level characteristics (size, growth, productivity and innovation) and industry-level dynamics, with the final aim to develop an informed view about the ability of theories to match with stylised facts.

Course outline:
1. Firm size and firm growth: empirics and stylised facts
2. The dynamics of firm productivity: empirics and stylised facts
3. The role of entry, exit and firm age in industry dynamics
4. Firm heterogeneity and firm-industry dynamics: review of alternative theories
5. Productivity, firm growth and industrial dynamics: empirics of market selection
6. Measuring innovative activity of firms
7. Sectoral patterns of innovation
8. Innovation and firm-growth

Textbooks: lecture notes and reading list to be provided in class

Final evaluation: oral examination